“Suburbs  -- distant from the affluent boulevards and bistros of Paris -- form the ‘other France’. They are the ‘peripheral France’, as the geographer Christophe Guilluy calls them in an important book. They are where ‘living together’ between communities has really been tested.

In the last 20 years, these French suburbs have not only become ‘concentrations of poverty and social isolation’, but have gone from being some of France's most densely-populated Jewish areas to ‘lost territories of the Republic’, according to the great historian Georges Bensoussan, in his book, Les territoires perdus de la République.

These suburbs have become transformed into one of the most visible signs of the Islamization of France.”